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Discussion of the location of Perunefer in 'Egyptian Archaeology'

The location of Perunefer has long been a subject of debate and most recently this has been carried on in issues of Egyptian Archaeology. Manfred Bietak opened the discussion in EA 26, proposing that Pernunefer was at Avaris/PiRamesse rather than at Memphis, and David Jeffreys responded in EA 28, supporting a Memphite location of the harbour. Professor Bietak replied in EAs 34 and 35, publishing new evidence which he maintains indicates a Delta location for Perunefer.

Since the discussion is spread over several issues of EA, we thought it would be helpful to have them all available in one place, and PDFs of the four articles can be downloaded below together with an article by John Cooper which has just been published in EA 41 and which assesses the navigability (or otherwise) of the Nile in antiquity - a crucial issue for identifying the location of Perunefer.

EA 26 Manfred Bietak, The Tuthmoside stronghold of Perunefer
(Please note this article had to be scanned to create a PDF, hence the low quality)

EA 28 David Jeffreys, Perunefer at Memphis or Avaris?

EA 34 Manfred Bietak, Perunefer the principal New Kingdom naval base

EA 35 Manfred Bietak, Perunefer: an update

EA 41 John Cooper, Nile navigation: ‘towing all day, punting for hours’


Publication date: 11.09.2012
Publication date: 04.09.2012
Publication date: 03.09.2012
Publication date: 24.08.2012
Publication date: 13.08.2012
Publication date: 26.07.2012
Publication date: 18.07.2012
Publication date: 20.06.2012
Publication date: 13.06.2012

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